1. Acetaminophen

A common analgesic and antipyretic agent with an efficacy similar to aspirin, except that it does not possess antirheumatic or anti-inflammatory properties. It is rapidly distributed in the body and has a short half-life (around 2 hours). Acetaminophen is a widely used alternative to aspirin, especially when usage of the latter is inadvisable (e.g., in patients with bleeding disorders). It is also sold in combination with other analgesics, antihistamines, decongestants, or cough suppressants. However, acute overdose or chronic daily dosing of acetaminophen may cause liver damage (hepatotoxicity).

2. Acupuncture

A form of holistic and alternative medicine in which fine needles are inserted into the body at specific points to relieve pain, induce anesthesia, or treat disease. It is based on the concept in traditional Chinese medicine that “meridians,” or pathways, conduct chi, the life force energy, between places on the skin and the body’s organ systems. The technique has been recognized in Western societies and deemed appropriate by the World Health Organization for use in treating more than 40 medical conditions.

3. Analgesics

A drug that alleviates pain. Analgesic usually are classed as opioid (narcotic) or nonopioid (nonnarcotic), depending on their chemical composition and potential for physical dependence. Opioid analgesics are generally the most effective in relieving pain. The most widely used of the less potent nonopioid analgesics are the NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) (e.g., aspirin and acetaminophen).

4. Anticonvulsant

Any drug used to reduce the frequency or severity of epileptic seizures or to terminate a seizure already underway.

5. Antidepressants

Any drug administered in the treatment of depression. Most antidepressants work by increasing the availability of monoamine neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, serotonin, or dopamine, although they do so by different routes.

6. Arachnoiditis

Painful inflammation and scarring of the meninges (protective layers) of the spinal nerves.

7. Arthritis

A syndrome of uncertain origin that is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and chronic fatigue. Pain may be triggered by pressure on numerous points on the body. Common symptoms are muscle stiffness, headaches, sleep disturbance, and depression. Symptoms also overlap with those of chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia is often comorbid with other disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome and migraine.

8. Bursitis

Occurs when the bursae become inflamed. Bursae are fluid-filled sacs that protect the muscles and bones near your joints. Bursitis can cause hip and leg pain.

9. Causalgia

Chronic pain with a burning sensation caused by peripheral nerve injury.

10. Central Pain Syndrome (CPS)

A rare neurological disorder caused by damage to or dysfunction of the pain-conducting pathways of the central nervous system (in the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord). Symptoms of CPS can vary greatly from one person to another, partly because the cause may differ.

11. Cervical radiculopathy

Describes when a nerve root in the cervical spine becomes inflamed or damaged, resulting in a change in neurological function. Neurological deficits, such as numbness, altered reflexes, or weakness, may occur anywhere from the neck into the shoulder, arm, hand, or fingers.

12. Cervical spondylosis

Common age-related wear and tear affecting the spinal disks in the neck. As the disks dehydrate and shrink, signs of osteoarthritis develop, including bony projections along the edges of bones (bone spurs).

13. Cervicogenic headache

Pain that develops in the neck, though a person feels the pain in their head. Cervicogenic headaches are secondary headaches which are those caused by an underlying condition such as neck injuries, infections, or severe high blood pressure.

14. Chronic Pain

Any pain lasting more than three months that can become progressively worse and reoccur intermittently, outlasting the usual healing process. It can cause significant psychological and emotional trauma and often limits one’s ability to fully function.

15. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)

A chronic pain condition that most often affects one limb (arm, leg, hand, or foot) usually after an injury consistently for six months or greater. CRPS is believed to be caused by damage to, or malfunction of, the peripheral and central nervous systems.

16. Compression fractures

Small breaks in the spine often related to osteoporosis. Sometimes also caused by a car accident or other injury.

17. Corticosteroids

Used to provide relief for inflamed areas of the body. They lessen swelling, redness, itching, and allergic reactions. They are often used as part of the treatment for a number of different diseases, such as severe allergies or skin problems, asthma, or arthritis.

18. Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan

Uses a combination of computer technology and X-rays to create cross-sectional views of your organs and bones.

19. Degenerative disc disease

An age-related condition that occurs when one or more of the discs between the vertebrae of the spinal column deteriorates or breaks down, leading to pain. There may be weakness, numbness, and pain that radiates through the leg.

20. Depression

A negative affective state characterized by low self-esteem, low mood, and lack of interest in the activities to be performed in daily life. These may range from unhappiness and discontent to an extreme feeling of sadness, pessimism, and despondency, that interferes with daily life. It is symptomatic of a number of mental health disorders.

21. Disc Herniation

This is when fragment of the disc nucleus that is pushed out of the annulus, into the spinal canal through a tear or rupture in the annulus. Discs that become herniated are usually in an early stage of degeneration.

22. Electromyography (EMG)

A nerve study that measures the electrical impulses produced by the nerves and the responses of your muscles. This test will show if there is nerve compression caused by herniated disks or narrowing of your spinal canal.

23. Endometriosis

A disorder wherein tissue similar to the tissue that normally lines the inside of the uterus, the endometrium, grows outside of the uterus. It commonly involves the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the tissue lining the pelvis.

24. Facet Medial Branch Block

This nerve block is for “arthritis” pain in the facet joints of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. The physician will inject numbing medication and steroids around the facet joints. If the joints are what is the cause of your pain then you will immediately experience short-term pain relief in this area. If you get positive results with the diagnostic procedure we then perform a radiofrequency on the nerve which “puts the nerve to sleep” and pain is alleviated for approximately 6-12 months.

25. Failed Back Surgery Syndrome

Occurs when back surgery fails to bring pain relief or seems to worsen the condition.

26. Fibromyalgia

A syndrome of uncertain origin that is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and chronic fatigue. Pain may be triggered by pressure on numerous points on the body. Common symptoms are muscle stiffness, headaches, sleep disturbance, and depression. Symptoms also overlap with those of chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia is often comorbid with other disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome and migraine.

27. Glycerol injections

Used to treat pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia. Using a brief, intravenous anaesthetic a needle is introduced into the nerve in the base of the skull and a small amount of glycerol injected. The treatment lasts only a few minutes.

28. Grounding

Walking barefoot on sand, wet grass, or concrete to help ensure the body gets enough electrons from the earth. Electrons help reduce inflammation in your body and boost your immune system.

29. HF10 Therapy

This entails advanced spinal cord manipulation. It calms the nerves carrying pain signals to your brain. Unlike traditional spinal cord stimulation therapy (SCS), it does not cause paresthesia, which is numbness or tingling.

30. KESI

An injection of steroids at the bottom of the lumbar spine and is used to treat lumbar degenerative disc disease or lumbar radiculopathy. The pain relief typically lasts at least 3 months and is repeated when indicated.

33. Lordosis

An excessive inward curvature of the spine. It may be caused by many different reasons.

34. Lumbar Sympathetic Block

This nerve block is used to treat pain caused by the sympathetic nerves that are part of the autonomic nervous system. This pain in an arm or leg that is caused by a malfunction in the autonomic system after an injury. By injecting medicine around the sympathetic nerves in the lumbar spine the pain is relieved and the procedure can be repeated until the pain has been eliminated.

35. Microvascular decompression

A piece of material that is placed between the trigeminal nerve and adjacent vessels and is associated with up to 10 years of pain relief. This procedure is a last resort and is considered a major surgical procedure.

36. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan

MRI uses a combination of radio waves and a large magnet to create detailed pictures of structures within your body.

37. Multiple sclerosis

A potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) wherein the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.

38. Myofascial Pain Syndrome

A condition where muscles may get knotted up and painful.

39. Neuropathic Pain

Pain caused by damage to peripheral nerves.

40. Nociceptors

Also known as the “pain receptors,” is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the brain.

41. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)

A class of drug that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation. Side effects depend on the specific drug but largely include an increased risk of gastrointestinal ulcers and bleeding, heart attack and kidney disease.

42. Opioids

A group of compounds that include naturally occurring opiates (e.g., morphine) and their semisynthetic derivatives (e.g., heroin). Their effects include analgesia, drowsiness, euphoria or other mood changes, respiratory depression, and reduced gastrointestinal motility. Opioids are clinically used as pain relievers, anesthetics, cough suppressants, and antidiarrheal drugs, however, many are subject to abuse and dependence.

43. Osteoarthritis

The most common form of arthritis and occurs when the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of the bones wears down over time. Although it can damage any joint, the disorder most commonly affects joints in the hands, knees, hips and spine.

44. Osteoporosis

Literally means “porous bone,” is a disease wherein the density and quality of bone are reduced. As bones become more porous and fragile, the risk of fracture is greatly increased. The loss of bone occurs silently and progressively. Often there are no symptoms until the first fracture occurs.

45. Pain Management

The prevention, reduction, or elimination of physical or mental suffering or discomfort, which may be achieved by pharmacotherapy (e.g., administration of opioids or other analgesics), psychological interventions, neurological and anesthesiologic methods (e.g., nerve blocks, self-administered pumps), complementary or alternative methods (e.g., acupuncture, acupressure), or a combination of these.

46. Peripheral Neuropathy

Result of an infected or damaged nerve which sends information to and from the brain and spinal cord. Because Peripheral Neuropathy can stem from a variety of factors, it is often mistreated as a side effect – due to conditions like diabetes and alcoholism.

47. Physical therapy

A process where a therapist uses their hand to massage the muscles, joints, and bones in and around your spine. The process is normally carried out by chiropractors, physiotherapists, or osteopaths. This is often the foundation of chronic back pain treatment. The therapist may work with you personally or give you exercises to do at home. Your exercise program needs to be tailored to your physique and condition. Exercises may include core training, stretching and flexibility and posture retraining.

48. Piriformis Syndrome

A condition where the piriformis muscle, located in the buttock region, spasms and causes pain. The piriformis muscle can also irritate the nearby sciatic nerve and cause pain, numbness, and tingling along the back of the leg and into the foot (akin to sciatic pain).

49. Post-herpetic neuralgia

Describes when the pain caused by shingles doesn’t go away after the rash and blisters clear up. It is a complication of herpes zoster, commonly called shingles, which affects the nerves and skin.

50. Radiculopathy

One or more of the nerves coming from the spinal cord can get compressed in the backbone leading to severe pain. It occurs more in the lower back and neck regions.

51. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)

A medical procedure where part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, tumor, or other dysfunctional tissue is ablated using the heat generated from medium frequency alternating current (in the range of 350–500 kHz).

Radiofrequency ablation

52. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD)

Overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, which may occur following local injury, usually to a limb, that is associated with damage to nerves and blood vessels. Associated results are pain, limb disuse, shiny and thin skin, loss of hair, and bone demineralization.

53. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

The inflammation of a joint or joints, causing pain, swelling, and stiffness. The potentially severe and disabling form is rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune disorder that can be chronic, painful, recurrent, and debilitating. Psychosocial effects can include lifestyle changes, stress on personal relationships, and depression.

54. Sacroiliitis

Inflammation in the sacroiliac joint which is where the lower spine and pelvis connect.


55. Sciatica

A disease involving the lumbar spinal nerve root. It manifests as pain, numbness, or weakness of the buttock and leg. Also known as Lumbar radiculopathy, it is typically caused by a compression of the spinal nerve root.


56. Scoliosis

A deformity that causes abnormal sideways curvature of the spine. Its causes are unknown, but it could be from a birth defect or genetic.

types of scoliosis

57. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)

Any of a class of antidepressants that are thought to act by blocking the reuptake of serotonin into serotonin-containing presynaptic neurons in the central nervous system. SSRIs have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of not only depression but also panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Common side effects include nausea, headache, anxiety, tremor, and some may experience sexual dysfunction. SSRIs include fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, and fluvoxamine. Also known as SRI (serotonin reuptake inhibitor).

58. Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI)

Any of a class of antidepressants that exert their therapeutic effects by interfering with the reabsorption of both serotonin and norepinephrine by the neurons that released them. They include venlafaxine and duloxetine.

59. Shingles

A viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox, and causes a painful rash. Shingles can occur anywhere on the body but it most often appears as a single stripe of blisters wrapped around either the left or the right side of the torso.

60. SI Joint Injection

This injection of numbing medication and steroids is for “sacroiliitis” which is inflammation of the sacroiliac joint. This causes pain in the low back, buttocks, groin or hip.

61. Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS)

Also known as a dorsal column stimulator, is a small device surgically placed under the skin and muscle to send a mild electric current to the spinal cord through small wires from a pulse generator to the nerve fibers of the spinal cord. This helps reduce pain because the electrical current interrupts the pain signal from your spinal cord to your brain. The stimulation feels like a mild tingling in the area where pain is usually felt and this helps better manage symptoms. Each stimulator contains various stimulation programs individualized to fit your specific needs and provide the best possible treatment plan for you.

62. Spinal Stenosis

A common condition wherein the small spinal canal, which contains the nerve roots and spinal cord, becomes compressed. This causes a “pinching” of the spinal cord and/or nerve roots, which leads to pain, cramping, weakness or numbness.

63. Spondylosis

A painful condition of the spine resulting from the degeneration of the intervertebral disks.

64. Stem Cell Treatments

The inflammation of a joint or joints, causing pain, swelling, and stiffness. The potentially severe and disabling form is rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune disorder that can be chronic, painful, recurrent, and debilitating. Psychosocial effects can include lifestyle changes, stress on personal relationships, and depression.

65. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)

A procedure which involves the use of low-voltage electric currents to treat pain. Electrodes or mediums for electricity to travel to the body, placed on the body at the site of pain deliver electricity that travels through the nerve fibers.

66. Transforaminal Epidural

This nerve block is for “discogenic” pain caused by compression of a nerve root in the spine. The physician is able to target a specific nerve root that is likely the source of the pain and will inject the area around the nerve with numbing medication and steroids and you will experience short-term relief of the pain caused by the nerve. If you get positive results with the diagnostic procedure we then perform a radiofrequency treatment on the nerve which “puts the nerve to sleep” and pain is alleviated for approximately 6-12 months.

67. Trigeminal Neuralgia (TGN)

Nervous system condition characterized by sharp, shooting, electrical facial pain into one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve, a major cranial nerve that provides sensation to one side of the face. This condition can affect the forehead and scalp, eyes, nose, upper and lower teeth, lips and jaw. Attacks can last weeks to months and are disabling, even leading to chronic depression. This pain is seen more commonly in women than men, usually in the 50 to 70-year age range.

Trigeminal Neuralgia

68. Trochanteric Bursal Injection

This injection of numbing medication and steroids are used to treat trochanteric bursitis which is inflammation of the “bursa sac” located in the hip.

69. Vitamin D

A group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D₃ and vitamin D₂.

70. Vitamin K12

Refers to a group of fat-soluble vitamins that play a role in blood clotting, bone metabolism, and regulating blood calcium levels. Deficiency is rare, but, in severe cases, it can increase clotting time, leading to hemorrhage and excessive bleeding.

71. Whiplash

Abrupt forward-jerking/backward-jerking movement of the head and neck can overstretch the tendons and ligaments leading to stiffness and pain. This is common in automobile accidents.




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